I General introduction to the MVNA-8-350 vector network
analyzerMVNA-8-350 is a vector network analyzer (VNA), an instrument which
measures the complex, or vector, impedance (a real and an imaginary part of the
impedance or an amplitude and a phase of the microwaves) in the millimeter and
sub-millimeter frequency domain. It covers the frequency range from 8 GHz up to
I.1 An original system
Vector Network Analyzer includes a tunable
microwave source and a detector, frequency stabilization unit, data acquisition
and data processing system. In order to obtain the complete response function of
Device Under Test (DUT) inserted into the microwave signal path, between the
source and the detector, the detection system must provide both, the amplitude
and the phase of the transmitted or reflected signal. Such vector measurements
have been done already for many years, using an interferometer arrangement. The
microwave signal is there split into two paths. The first, signal path includes
the DUT, and the second, reference path, provides the wave which interferes with
the signal from the DUT in the detector. Such dual path configuration, although
widely used in the optical range of the spectrum, is often not practical in
microwaves, in particular due to problems with standing waves. The new design of
the MVNA-8-350 vector analyzer, developed by AB MILLIMETRE (Patent CNRS-AB
MILLIMETRE), avoids this dual path configuration. Instead, it provides a direct
way to perform vector measurements with a single path microwave channel. In the
MVNA signal path, the measured millimeter wave signal, which reaches the
detector head, is down converted in a Schottky diode harmonic mixer to much
lower frequency. Then, the down converted signal is further processed in the
heterodyne vector receiver which uses an original, very simple and effective
internal reference channel. Receiver frequency tuning is achieved with an
internal synthesizer. Although the frequency of the MVNA signal is usually not
synthesized, an external 8-18 GHz source locking frequency counter (recommended)
connected to MVNA allows one to synthesize each millimeter and submillimeter
frequency with desired accuracy. Moreover, for a fast synthesized sweep one can
use an external 2.67-6.5 GHz synthesizer attached to MVNA via FASA
(FAst Synthesizer Association) extension.
I.2 MVNA-8-350 evolutionAvailable from November 1994, a dual channel
receiver introduced the possibility to detect two signals at the same time, and,
from April 1995, a complete 4-S parameter circuit characterization without
dismounting the DUT is available. From June 1996, the receiver response time was
reduced by a factor of 20, allowing broad frequency sweeps in a few seconds. In
November 1996, AB Millimetre introduced a new capability of MVNA which allows the
system to work with a single pair of millimeter heads at two different
frequencies at the same time. Such a set-up is particularly useful in time
critical applications. For example, in experiments in high magnetic fields dual
frequency measurements and more reliable (by comparison) acquisition saves
precious experimental time and provides more data. In December 1996 the Company
developed the capability of the system which allows to attach external microwave
and submillimeter sources to the MVNA (therefore, also to detect their signal
with vector capability) without need for an external stabilization.
This is called FESA extension (Free External Source Association). In June
1997, the association with Gunn diode oscillators feeding multi-harmonic
multipliers was extended to widely tunable Gunns. In such a configuration the
high frequency domain (above 140 GHz) can be continuously covered with a minimum
of extensions: a single extension ESA-1-FC (FC is for Full Coverage) to ca 600 GHz,
the extensions ESA-1-FC and ESA-2-FC to ca 1000 GHz. Our extensions, ESA-1 (for the source)
and ESA-2 (for the detector) use, as local oscillators, similar Gunns, tuned to
very close frequencies. In July 2000, AB Millimetre has developed a new
capability, which allows one to attach our ESA-2 extension into the detection
system based on the frequency multiplication chain that the customer may already
have. In that multiplication chain, the Gunn oscillator frequency can be
different from the Gunn frequency of our ESA-2 extension. Due to the improved
efficiency of existing, and yet to come, state-of-the-art multiplication chains,
the upper frequency limit of our MVNA could be pushed up to ca. 2 THz. In
September 2000, the Company has developed the possibility to detect
simultaneously, by the same ESA-2 extension, signals from two different
multiplication chains working at different submillimeter frequencies.
In summer 2006, the ESA (External Source Association) extensions have been completely
redesigned and improved into ASA (Automatic Source Association). This technical
breakthrough was achieved by replacing, as W-band millimetre source,
the 71-111 GHz mechanically tunable Gunn oscillators by an active multiplier
chain composed from the sextupler cascaded with an equivalent medium power WR-10 waveguide
amplifier delivering 62-112 GHz. ASA extension is electronically tuned over the full frequency range.
As a result, the experiments involving ASA extensions
require neither tedious mechanical tuning of Gunns nor complicated adjustment
of the PLL control. Moreover, at any central frequency chosen between 142 and 1000 GHz,
the ASA extension is particulary useful for reasonably wide frequency sweep spans, over 9 GHz,
typically 20 GHz,instead of at most a few GHz available with the former ESA extension.
In 2009, the development of high-efficiency broad band Schottky devices opened the availability
of Full Broadband FB sources and detectors for the bands 130-224 GHz,
220-336 GHz, and 660-1000 GHz.
logical and operational control of the analyzer is done with a PC computer. The
AB Millimetre software provides also many tools for data storage and analysis.
These include Fourier Transform FT analysis, data fitting, averaging and
smoothing. For example, the FT capability allows one to observe the time domain
response of DUT after each frequency sweep, and it also provides very efficient
tool for testing of microwave propagation in experimental benches. Complex
Lorentzian fitting of resonances (circles in the complex response polar plane)
brings, without ambiguity, relevant parameters for resonance cavities, and other
resonances, even when the resonant signal is convoluted with a non resonant
background. Split resonance (double Lorentzians) can be also resolved. Collected
data can be further analyzed by fitting of built-in models, which include
Fabry-Perot resonances, attenuated resonances, etc., or with externally supplied
programs, including most popular data analysis software and the Labview ®
package ("Labview" is a registered trade mark of National Instruments ®).
I.3 MVNA-8-350 alone, or with ASA extensions
The Millimeter Vector Network
Analyzer model MVNA-8-350 which is all solid state electronics, provides a
continuous frequency coverage from 8 GHz to 336 GHz and also 660-1000 GHz
without any extension. Its
internal tunable sources work in the centimeter domain, from 8.0 to 18.8 GHz.
These sources can be used also directly, via their SMA coax connectors available
at the front panel of the instrument. Millimeter-submillimeter waves are
generated by frequency multiplication, and are detected by harmonic mixing.
These multiplication-detection functions are performed in the millimeter heads
connected to the analyzer main panel with flexible coax cables. Each millimeter
head contains a Schottky barrier diode attached across a waveguide. Seven
waveguide standards (WR-42, WR-22, WR-15, WR-10, WR-6.5, WR-5.1, and WR-3.4),
with the corresponding six pairs of millimeter heads, deliver almost continuous
frequency coverage from 16 GHz (our possible lower limit for WR-42) to 336 GHz.
Without the WR-28 standard (Ka-Band), there
is a small gap between 26.5 GHz (upper limit of WR-42 heads) and 29 GHz (our
possible lower limit for WR-22 heads). Each of the millimeter bands below 336 GHz
can be covered in a single computer-controlled frequency sweep, without need for
an additional mechanical tuning. This is also the case for the 660-1000 GHz band
On the other hand, the ASA extensions do include
mechanically tunable Schottky devices and configurable high pass filters which
allow one to optimize the output power and tunability range of the system at any
particular frequency between 140 and 1000 GHz. Then, the computer driven frequency
sweep span exceeds 9 GHz.
II MVNA-8-350 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
II.1 MVNA-8-350 Basic Configuration and recommended extra
The basic MVNA-8-350 configuration consists of:
All the above items are delivered, with all necessary cables, by AB
MILLIMETRE under the name "MVNA-8-350", see
A very much recommended extra equipment is the 8-20 GHz source locking counter.
The MVNA can thus be automatically phase locked through, for
example, the GPIB link. Such a configuration allows for synthesized frequency
operation up to 1000 GHz, which is useful, for instance, when characterizing
high-Q resonance (Q>30,000) or antennas with a large distance between the
source and the detector.
- an MVNA central unit (made from two parts, see below, section II.3),
- a PC computer fitted with interface cards, running a powerful software
package for command, data acquisition, processing and visualization,
- a graphic printer attached to the PC computer,
- a control oscilloscope visualizing in the real time the detected
millimeter waves amplitude, phase and signal-to-noise ratio.
II.2 MVNA-8-350 Flat Broadband Millimeter Heads
The AB MILLIMETRE Millimeter Heads,
which are small and lightweight, are linked to the Analyzer through
flexible coax cables, with a standard length of 1m each. The cable length can be
extended up to 10m. The heads include, at the minimum, a Harmonic Generator HG
(the source), and a Harmonic Mixer HM (the detector). In order to minimize the
standing waves effects, each millimeter wave port must be equipped with a full
band isolator (if available) or a fixed attenuator (above 220 GHz).
The millimeter wave ports must be chosen in the
millimeter bands of interest, namely K (18-26.5 GHz, waveguide WR-42), Ka
(26.5-40 GHz, WR-28), Q (33-50 GHz, WR-22), U (40-60 GHz, WR-19), V (50-75 GHz,
WR-15), W (75-110 GHz, WR-10), D (110-170 GHz, WR-6), G (140-220 GHz, WR-5.1),
WR-3.4 (220-330 GHz), WR-1.2 (660-1000 GHz). The millimeter ports in
bands K, Ka, Q, U, V, W, D, G, WR-3.4, and WR-1.2 are called FB (Flat Broadband), see
Fig. 3, and
In all these bands no mechanical tuning is needed and one can perform full
frequency range electronically-driven sweeps within given band.
II.3 Different models of MVNA-8-350
The MVNA Central Unit is made from
two halves and each half exists in several versions. The different models of
MVNA-8-350 are due to various combinations of the two halves (upper and lower).
- The upper half of the Central Unit is the Vector Receiver (VR) of the
Analyzer, which can be a single channel one, model VR-8-350-1 (one millimeter
wave signal detected at a time only), see
5, or the dual channel one VR-8-350-2 (two millimeter signals detected
simultaneously), see Fig.
6. A model VR-8-350-1 can be easily upgraded to a dual channel model
VR-8-350-2 at the user's site, at any time after delivery.
- The lower half of the Central Unit is the Microwave Part of the Analyzer
(MP). The simplest version is MP-8-350-1 (Fig.
7), with a single connector for a HG cable, and a single connector for a
Attaching MP-8-350-1 to VR-8-350-1, one obtains
the simplest Analyzer, MVNA-8-350-1 (Fig. 8),
which performs a single measurement at a time. Let us consider a transmission
measurement across a DUT. After calibration, in a first sweep, of direct
transmission (HG directly connected to HM), the DUT is introduced between HG and
HM. The second sweep gives the DUT parameter S21. Similarly S11 is measured with
a directional coupler in the reflection geometry, after a calibration performed
on a short. The more sophisticated reflection calibration is possible with a few
additional components: fixed short, tunable short, and matched load.
The lower part of the Central Unit model
MP-8-350-2 has a single connector for a HG cable, and two HM connectors (Fig. 9).
Two Harmonic Mixers can work simultaneously, for instance HM2 detecting
transmission through the DUT, and HM1, at port 3 of a directional coupler,
detecting reflection from the DUT (Fig.
10). The Vector Receiver will naturally be the dual channel model
VR-8-350-2. The assembly MP-8-350-2 + VR-8-350-2 is labeled as Analyzer model
For transmission-reflection measurements, calibrations can be made
in two sweeps: firstly, HG contacting HM2 across the directional coupler, and
then HM1 detecting total reflection from a short placed at the coupler output.
Again, the more accurate reflection calibration is obtained in five, or seven
sweeps with: a fixed short FS, a tunable short TS (in 3 positions), and a
matched, or tunable load TL (in 1 or 3 positions) (Fig.
12). After connecting the DUT between the coupler and HM2, S21 and S11 are
II.3.3 MVNA-8-350-4 and 4S parameters
The microwave part MP-8-350-4 is
designed for the 4S-Parameter measurements. It includes two connectors for the
two detectors HM like in MP-8-350-2, and also two connectors for the two sources
HG, which are powered alternatively (Fig.
13). Naturally, for such measurements the Vector Receiver must be the dual
channel version, VR-8-350-2. The assembly of VR-8-350-2 and MP-8-350-4 is the
4-S Parameter Analyzer MVNA-8-350-4 (Fig.
14). Thus the 4-S Parameters are obtained in two sweeps, which are
automatically driven, without dismounting the DUT placed between two directional
The full calibration of empty system usually requires eight
sweeps, using shorts, a through, a sliding short (3 positions) and a sliding
matched load (3 positions). However, in some cases the calibration can also be
done in a simpler way, in 3 sweeps only.
It is possible to attach a dual channel receiver
VR-8-350-2, to a single-HM microwave part MP-8-350-1, creating in that way a
very flexible measuring system, a "microwave panoramic receiver" with which one
can extract two separate signals from the single detector HM (or extension ASA-2).
two detecting channels can be tuned to two
different harmonics of the same HG or ASA-1 microwave source. It provides a
possibility of simultaneous dual frequency measurements, like 52.5 and 70 GHz,
400 and 500 GHz, or a similar arrangement. The assembly of MP-8-350-1 (single
detector Microwave Part) and VR-8-350-2 (dual channel Vector Receiver) is called
MVNA-8-350-1-2, see Fig.
15. That configuration is highly recommended for some research applications, in
particular, for spectroscopy and magneto-spectroscopy since the dual frequency
technique allows one to save a lot of expensive measuring time.
II.4 Software and interfacing.
The installed sophisticated software
offers many possibilities for signal storage, processing, visualization, etc.
This includes the Fourier Transform analysis, and the line shape fitting of
resonance. The system can also control external devices through the GPIB
interface. It provides also and analog, and digital input/output channels,
together with a direct access to the microwave receiver phase and amplitude
signals. The installed software can drive one or two stepper motors, it can also
record a variable voltage corresponding for instance to an independent variable
of the experiment.One can make the sweep of frequency, time, angle, or
magnetic field. Such a sweep can also be controlled by an external voltage
supplied to the system. These possibilities are used for example, for antennas
measurements, and for spectroscopy with magnetic fields. Last but not least the
software of MVNA allows easy interfacing with standard experiment-control
packages, including National Instruments ® Labview ® and compatible programs.
III Operational techniques and the dynamic range
III.1 The 8-336 GHz and 660-1000 GHz frequency ranges
The range where the
analyzer signal frequency is swept in a continuous way, without extensions, is
extending from 8 GHz to 336 GHz, and from 660 to 1000 GHz.
The ratio of the total power of the signal
radiated by the source to the smallest amount of power which can be detected
(at the noise level, at the measurement rate of 20 points/sec), expressed in
logarithmic units, is called the Dynamic Range (DR). That number also shows
the maximum attenuation introduced by the DUT which can be measured with the MVNA.
See Flat Broadband FB heads typical DR in
Fig. 16 traces
a, b, c, d, e1, f, h1.
III.2 MVNA heads based on a medium-power extended W-band source
III.2.1.1 62-112 GHz source
We have developed a new sextupler which covers broader frequency range (62-112 GHz)
than the previous one (limited to W-band = 75-110 GHz) and which also delivers more
power, in the 10-40 mW range. It is called HG-W-FB-MP (Full Band, Medium Power).
See its photograph Fig. 17.
The signal in the frequency range 62-112 GHz can be
detected by the ordinary detector HM-W-FB with a dynamic range exceeding 120 dB.
III.2.1.2 130-224, 220-336, 660-1000 GHz sources
The HG-W-FB-MP can also drive dedicated frequency multipliers: the doubler
DOU-wr5.1 which covers frequency range 130-224 GHz with output power
in the range 0.5 – 5 mW, and the tripler TRI-wr3.4 which covers the
220-336 GHz interval with output power in the range 0.1-1.2 mW. The device
composed of HG-W-FB-MP and DOU-wr5.1 is offered as the source HG-wr5.1-FB,
see Fig. 18 and
the device composed of HG-W-FB-MP and TRI-wr3.4 is offered as the source
Cascading a second tripler to the HG-wr3.4-FB output one obtains
a signal source covering the frequency range 660-1000 GHz. Such source is
offered under the name HG-wr1.2-FB with WR-1.2 waveguide output or HG-wr1.2-FB-DH
with built in Diagonal Horn output, see
That source delivers sub-terahertz
microwave radiation with the power typically in the range of 1-10 microwatts.
III.2.1.3 140-1000 GHz source
All dedicated Full-Band "FB" frequency multipliers (with a multiplying factor
M = 2, 3 or 9 from the W-band LO),
as described above, can be swept over the full band without any adjustment.
In the mechanically tunable extensions working over several harmonics, called
ASA (formerly named ESA), the local oscillator is also HG-W-FB-MP (instead of the
former, mechanically tuned, Gunn). After source optimization, the typical,
electronically-controlled frequency scan can be extended over approximatelly
10-20 GHz range around selected frequency.
(traces c, e, f and h) summarizes our sources output power level obtained by
multiplication of the HG-W-FB-MP
for all multiplication factors (including M=1).
AB Millimetre developed new, extremely sensitive detectors, which are very
simple in use since they do not require separate bias.
III.2.2.1 130-224 GHz detection (HM-wr5.1)
The tunable detector HM-wr5.1,
Fig. 22, is typically used to detect signal
generated by the HG-wr5.1-FB (power delivered by HG-wr5.1-FB is shown at
Fig. 21 trace e,
with the dynamic range approaching 130 dB over 130-224 GHz
see Fig. 16 trace e2.
range of such a set-up exceeds by more than 30 dB over most of the spectral range,
that of an earlier, non-tunable, HM-D-FB detector (as shown in
Fig. 16 trace e1).
That gain is particularily
advantageous for experiments performed at fixed frequencies, like antenna
measurements and spectroscopy in the magnetic field. On the other hand, the
non-tunable detector HM-D-FB provides flatter spectral response. That might be
advantageous for full-band sweep applications, like characterization of
materials in quasi-optical benches.
III.2.2.2 220-336 GHz and above, up to 1000 GHz detection (HM-wr3.4)
The sub-terahertz detector assembly HM-wr4.3 is shown in
Fig. 23. That
detector was designed to work together with the source HG-wr3.4-FB. The measured
dynamic range of such a set-up is close to 120 dB for most of the frequency
range of 220-336 GHz
( Fig. 16 trace f).
That dynamic range can be additionally optimized by
mechanical tuning of the detector. The typical output power emitted by HG-wr3.4-FB
is shown in Fig. 21
Changing of the frequency anywhere within 220-336 GHz range requires only a
single mechanical tuning optimization, of HM-wr3.4. However, for these
applications where such a mechanical tuning is not possible, for instance with
a detector at a remote distance from the user, or in a full-band sweep, it
is possible to modify the detector for tuningless work. In order to do that it
is sufficient to remove the tuning short (shown in the right side of
and such modified HM-wr4.3, together with HG-wr3.4-FB source, still provides
rather uniform dynamic range, ca 120 dB over the spectral range 220-336
GHz, as shown in
Fig. 16 trace f.
The power level of microwaves generated by HG-wr1.2-FB above 660 GHz
(see Fig. 21, trace h)
is lower than that at smaller frequencies although it is adequate for several,
even most demanding applications. In particular, that power level is sufficient
to obtain, with the detector the HM-wr3.4, a typical dynamic range of 50 dB
( Fig. 16, trace h3).
III.2.2.3. 660-1000 GHz HM-wr1.2-FB detector
See the picture in
of this non-tunable, sensitive, detector, giving DR
ca 80 dB when detecting HG-wr1.2-FB (
Fig. 16 trace h1).
To be much preferred
to the ASA-2-FC tunable detection (see below) in the 660-1000 GHz interval.
III.2.2.4 250-1000 GHz detection - the extension ASA-2-FC
For applications requiring the highest possible sensitivity
in the 336-660 GHz domain, AB Millimetre provides
the tunable extension ASA-2-FC detection
unit ( Fig. 25).
It covers spectral range
from its input waveguide frequency cutoff 250 GHz up to above one terahertz.
Like the corresponding source ASA-1-FC, this detector requires mechanical tuning,
therefore the sweep scans are typically limited to frequency interval of 20 GHz.
ASA-2-FC uses sextupler HG-W-FB with the output signal power of 1-4 mW as a local
Fig. 16 trace g1 is for
detection of ASA-1-FC, and trace h2 is for detection of HG-wr1.2-FB.
III.3 Microwave power control over a range of at least 50 dB
Rotary-vane calibrated 0-60 dB attenuator K can be attached at the HG-W-FB-MP output.
At the fundamental frequency (within the W band) its
calibration is reliable in the 0-50 dB attenuation range. The power can be also
controlled after frequency multiplication for sources HG-wr5.1-FB, HG-wr3.4-FB and ASA-1-FC-FB
with the attenuator K inserted between
the HG-W-FB-MP and the cascaded Multiplier.
However, due to the nonlinear characteristic of the multiplier, the
output power will decrease much faster than that shown by the attenuator scale,
and the effective range of the adjustment will increase (to more than 130 dB at
M=3, at the maximum attenuation position). The MVNA analyzer itself provides a
precise calibration of the relative output power versus attenuator K
IV Accessory components
At operations below 224 GHz a full waveguide band
Faraday isolator must be attached to each millimeter head in order to reduce the
standing waves. It is difficult to find standard isolators available above 220 GHz
(WR-5.1). If one encounters problems with standing waves working at higher
frequencies, the attenuators inserted into the microwave or optical path should
help to diminish their effect. That will, however, also reduce the dynamic range
of the detector. Therefore, a trade off must be analyzed and tested for each
particular application. One should also notice that isolators are sensitive to
stray magnetic fields and must not be placed in a field exceeding a few Gauss.
(For example, big superconducting magnets may generate stray field of that
strength in the radius of a few meters.).
The use of the extensions ASA-1-FC and ASA-2-FC requires high-pass filters
which are supplied by AB MILLIMETRE (Fig.
Fixed value attenuators (40 dB in the K-Ka bands, 30
dB in the Q-V bands, 20 dB in the W band, 6 dB in the D band, etc.) are very useful
for direct signal calibration, and also to measure low loss devices, since they
damp the standing waves. An appropriate attenuator is supplied for free with
each HG head, as shown in the Fig.
2, between the isolators.
IV.4 Directional couplers
Directional couplers are necessary for
reflection measurements, and they are also very useful for the characterization
of waveguide structures (sample holders, diplexers, light pipes, etc.). There
are separate couplers for each frequency range, corresponding to waveguide
standard sizes, up to 336 GHz (WR-3.4). See Fig. 27 as an example.
IV.5 Feed horns, conical transitions
If one chooses the free space, or
quasi optical mode of propagation, one must couple the radiation from the
millimeter heads outputs, which are waveguides, to the free space with horn
antennas creating Gaussian beams, typically with about 10° half angle aperture
(RF field dropping by 1/e), and side lobes below -20 dBc. AB Millimetre offers
a broad range of horn antennas, including scalar (corrugated), Potter, and
diagonal (DH) horns for frequencies up to 1000 GHz
In case one chooses the oversized guide, or light pipe propagation,
one must use low loss, low standing wave ratio, pyramidal-conical transitions
between waveguides and the light pipe, Fig. 32.
The cone half angle is 3° or below, and the length of each transition is
around 90 mm.
IV.6 Extension cables
Standard microwave (8 - 18 GHz) SMA connecting
cables supplied with the Analyzer are 1m long. Some low temperature experiments
and antenna characterization may require longer cables. For these purposes we
offer extension cables up to 10 m long. Cables up to 25 m can also be used with
8-18 GHz amplifiers. One should notice that, in order to achieve a good phase
stability, it is recommended that the sum of the effective length of the cable
connecting the Analyzer to the source HG plus the length of the microwave path
from the source to the detector should be equal to the length of the cable
connecting the detector HM to the Analyzer. The corresponding extra length of
coax cable connecting on the HM side should be calculated taking into account
that the free space propagation length is 1.2 m per 1 m of the cable.
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1994, Cannes, France.
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K. Katsumata, H. Yamaguchi, M. Hagiwara, H. Yamazaki, 23th Int.
Conf. on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, September 7-11, 1998, Colchester, UK.
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J.P. Kotthaus, in "Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of
Solids", ed. G. Gruener, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 1998, ISBN
3-540-62860-6, pp. 221-282.
- "Millimeter-submillimeter measurements in free space, and in resonant
structures. Application to dielectrics characterization." P. Goy, M.
Gross, S. Caroopen, J. Mallat, J. Tuovinen, A. Maestrini, G. Annino, M.
Fittipaldi, M. Martinelli, Material Research Society Spring Meeting, April
24-28 2000, Symposium AA "Millimeter-submillimeter wave technology,
materials, devices, and diagnostics", invited talk, San Francisco, USA.
- "Vector measurements up to the THz and beyond, at several frequencies
at the same time", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, 8th Int.
Conf. on THz Electronics, September 28-29 2000, Darmstadt, Germany.
- "Instrumentation for millimeter-wave magnetoelectrodynamic
investigations of low-dimensional conductors and superconductors", M.
Mola, S. Hill, P. Goy, M. Gross, Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 186-200, (2000).
- "A Vector Analyzer for observing millimeter-submillimeter
resonances", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, A. Ardavan, R. Edwards, E. Rzepniewski,
J. Singleton, 30th European Microwave Conference, October 2-6 2000,
CNIT, Paris-La Defense, France.
- "Dielectric characterization in the millimeter and submillimeter range
by vector measurements in quasi-optical structures", P. Goy, S. Caroopen,
M. Gross, B.Thomas, A. Maestrini, 17eme Colloque International
Optique Herzienne et Dielectriques, OHD 2003, Sept. 3-5, Calais, France.
- "Continuous wave vector measurements from 8 GHz to the THz and
beyond", P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Caroopen, IRMMW 2003, 28 International
Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Otsu Shiga, Sept. 29 - Oct. 2,
- "High field high frequency EPR techniques and their applications to
single molecule magnets", R.S. Edwards, S. Hill, P. Goy, R. Wylde and
S. Takahashi, Physica B 346-347, 211-215 (2004).
- "S11 characterization of a defective-, then repaired-, scalar horn for
W-band", P. Goy, internal report, Jan. 16, 2005.
- "Vector characterization of millimeter-submillimeter antennas with a
single setup in the 8-1000 GHz interval", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross,
ICAT 2005, International Conference on Antenna Technologies, Feb. 23-24, 2005,
- "Large area W-band quasi-optical Faraday rotators for imaging
applications", R.I. Hunter, D.A. Robertson, P. Goy, G.M. Smith,
IRMMW2005/THz2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on
Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference
on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
- "Multiple frequency submillimeter-wave heterodyne imaging using an AB
Millimetre MVNA", P.H. Siegel, R.J. Dengler, T. Tsai, P. Goy, H. Javadi,
IRMMW 2005/THz 2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on
Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference
on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
- "Comparison between two scalar horns, designed for 183 GHz, by
the reflection method in D-band (110-170 GHz)", P. Goy, internal report
AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.
- "Vector measurements of cavity and magnetic resonances", P. Goy,
internal report AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.
- "Anisotropic exchange in tetranuclear CoII complex", J. Liu, S. Datta, E.Bolin,
J. Lawrence, C.C. Beedle, E-C. Yang, P. Goy, D.N. Hendrickson and Steven Hill,
Polyhedron 28, 1922-1926 (2009).
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